A repeated cross-sectional study of sympathy for violent radicalization in Canadian college students
The upsurge in violent radicalization is associated with a global increase in social inequalities and conflicts related to different markers of identity. To date, literature on the factors associated with legitimizing violence toward others is cross-sectional and does not provide information on the possible change of this phenomenon over time. Such information is necessary to design primary prevention programs that are adapted to and address a rapidly evolving social context. We use a repeated cross-sectional study design to explore the association between sociodemographic characteristics and scores on the Sympathy for Violent Radicalization Scale (SVR) in Quebec (Canada) college students at 2 times points. Results from an online survey completed by students of 6 colleges in 2015 (n = 854) and 2017 (n = 702) indicate that although overall scores on the SVR scale remained stable, there were changes in the association between age, identity, and the outcome at the two time points. Specifically, scores on the SVR were significantly higher among younger students in 2017 than in 2015. In addition, in 2017 we observed a relationship between collective identity and SVR that was not present in 2015. These results align with other recent studies in Canada and the U.S. documenting the emergence of new forms of youth politicized bullying associated with race, ethnicity, and religion. A close monitoring of the phenomenon is warranted to both better understand the impact of populist policies on the increase in hate incidents and crimes and develop programs to address these forms of violence from a public health perspective.
David Morin et Stéphane Leman-Langlois, La Presse +, 26 mai 2020
Entrevue avec David Morin, La Tribune, 18 mars 2020
Entrevue avec Stéphane Leman-Langlois, HuffPost Québec, 20 février 2020
Entrevue avec Ghayda Hassan et David Morin, CÉRIUM (UdeM), 13 février 2020
This article explores ISIS’s concept of education and teaching. More precisely, we examine how religious elements were integrated into textbooks written and published by the group. We then present the results of codifying religious elements found in textbooks. We conducted a precise, targeted study of religion-integrated teachings through a didactic and critical lens. The textbooks analyzed in this article were published by ISIS. Printed copies were found and recovered by our team in a number of schools around Kirkuk after its liberation. The dogmatism of these teaching methods is apparent because it meant not to develop students’ critical thinking.
This book comprehensively examines right-wing extremism (RWE) in Canada, discussing the lengthy history of violence and distribution, ideological bases, actions, organizational capacity and connectivity of these extremist groups. It explores the current landscape, the factors that give rise to and minimise these extremist groups, strategies for countering these groups, and the emergence of the ‘Alt-Right’. It draws on interviews with law enforcement officials, community activists, and current and former right-wing activists to inform and offer practical advice, paired with analyses of open source intelligence on the state of the RWE movement in Canada. The historical and contemporary contours of right-wing extremism in Canada are situated within the social, political, and cultural landscape that has shaped the movement. It will be of particular interest to students and researchers of criminology, sociology, social justice, terrorism and political violence.
Converging Patterns in Pathways in and out of Violent Extremism: Insights from Former Canadian Right-Wing Extremists
In recent years, research on pathways in and out of violent extremism has grown at a staggering rate. Yet much of what is known about these oftentimes “mysterious” processes does not necessarily shed light on the specific aspects of right-wing extremism, and especially not from a Canadian perspective. In an effort to bridge this gap, we use a life-course criminology approach to draw from the voices of former extremists to gain insights into their respective trajectories in and out of violent extremism. A total of 10 life course interviews were conducted with former Canadian members of violent right-wing extremist groups. Analyses of these data suggest that even if there is no single trajectory in and out of violent extremism, there are still converging patterns such as the attraction for common pull factors and a profound dedication to the right-wing cause. Our analyses also demonstrate that the emotional toll of leaving the movement is often characterized by exhaustion, isolation and regrets.
While it has become increasingly common for researchers, practitioners and policymakers to draw from the insights of former extremists to combat violent extremism, overlooked in this evolving space has been an in-depth look at how formers perceive such efforts. To address this gap, interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian former right-wing extremists based on a series of questions provided by 30 Canadian law enforcement officials and 10 community activists. Overall, formers suggest that combating violent extremism requires a multidimensional response, largely consisting of support from parents and families, teachers and educators, law enforcement officials, and other credible formers.